Category: Lesson Plans

Takeoff and landing

Objective

The student will gain a familiarity with the procedures used during takeoff and landing phases of flight, as well as a knowledge of proper wind correction techniques. An understanding of runway incursions and how to avoid them should also be developed.

Elements

  • Runway incursion avoidance
  • Normal takeoff
  • Normal landing
  • Crosswind takeoff
  • Crosswind landing

Schedule

Introduction 05
Main body 25
Application 05
Conclusion 05
Total 40 minutes

Equipment

  • model aircraft
  • whiteboard and markers
  • Airplane Flying Handbook
  • UND standardization manual

Instructor actions

Explain and demonstrate the proper techniques, using whiteboard and model aircraft. The discussion will be guided, and based on the student’s reading assignment, to ensure the student’s level of understanding is at an appropriate level.

Student Actions

The student should have read the Airplane Flying Handbook and Pilot’s Handbook chapters on the topic, and participate in the guided discussion by answering questions and explaining their actions in the situations posed.

Completion standards

The lesson will be complete when the student has an understanding of normal and crosswind procedures, and can explain them. The student will also be able to explain the proper technique to use for given scenarios.

Teaching outline

  • before-takeoff actions
    • runup and checklists complete
    • takeoff direction: into the wind. why?
    • visually clear base and final
    • tower clearance or CTAF position / intentions announcement
  • wake turbulence considerations
  • runway incursion avoidance
Normal takeoff
  • takeoff roll
    • align with runway!
    • release brakes and smoothly apply power
    • add rudder along with throttle to counteract turning tendencies
  • rotation / liftoff
  • initial climb
  • Runway incursion avoidance
    • controlled airports
    • uncontrolled airports
    • position reporting
  • Normal takeoff
    • theory
    • performance
    • control inputs required
    • checklist usage
  • Normal landing
    • theory
    • performance
    • control inputs required
    • checklist usage
  • Crosswind takeoff
    • wind correction technique
    • control inputs required
    • maintaining extended centerline
  • Crosswind landing
    • wind correction technique
    • control inputs required
    • proper rollout technique

Instrument Proficiency Check plan of action

This plan of action, while generic, meets the requirements of the Instrument Practical Test Standards.

Logbook endorsement

I certify that full namecertificate & number, has satisfactorily completed the instrument proficiency check of §61.57(d) in a make and model on date.

Date, signature, CFI #, exp date

Ground
  1. FAR Part 91 review
    • Subpart B (instrument flight rules)
    • Subpart C (equipment, instrument, and certificate requirements)
    • Subpart E (maintenance)
  2. Instrument enroute and approach charts
    • SID/DPs
    • STARs
  3. Weather analysis and knowledge
  4. Preflight planning
    • performance data and fuel planning
    • alternates
    • publications and NOTAMS
  5. Aircraft systems related to IFR operations
  6. Aircraft flight instruments and navigation equipment
    • technologically advanced aircraft
    • oxygen and anti- or de-icing equipment
  7. Airworthiness status of aircraft and avionics related to IFR flight
  8. Other areas, as appropriate
Flight
  1. Recovery from unusual flight attitudes
  2. VOR/DME approach (nonprecision)
    • Intercepting/tracking navaids and DME arcs
    • Missed approach
  3. Approach with loss of primary flight instruments (on final)
    • Circle to land
    • Missed approach
    • Holding
  4. Emergency operations
  5. ILS (precision)
    • Landing from a straight-in approach
  6. Postflight procedures

Departure and arrival procedures and clearances

Objective

The student should gain an understanding of departure and arrival procedures and clearances, as well as a basic ability to read enroute and approach charts.

Elements

  • Terminology
  • Charts
    • Enroute
    • NOS approach plates
    • Jepp approach plates
  • Procedures
  • Clearances

Schedule

Introduction 05
Main body 45
Application 20
Conclusion 05
Total 1 hour 15 minutes

Equipment

  • pen and paper
  • Instrument Flying Handbook
  • Instrument Flying
  • laptop with internet connection
  • enroute chart and approach plates

Instructor actions

  • Describe the arrival and departure area clearances and why they’re important
  • Evaluate student knowledge with questions emphasizing understanding rather than rote
    • Have the student solve multiple scenarios
  • Conclude with an oral quiz, identifying and correcting errors

Student actions

  • Arrive with completed homework assignment
  • Maintain active involvement by responding to questions and taking notes
  • Practice reading back clearances to ATC in several scenarios
  • Complete an oral quiz and demonstration of the concepts

Completion standards

The lesson will be complete when the student can brief an approach, describe chart elements, and interpret air traffic control clearances with minimal instructor guidance.

Teaching outline

Obstacle departure clearance
  • With standard requirements, aircraft must be able to climb 200 ft/nm, starting from 35 ft above the threshold.
    • no turns before 400 AGL
    • obstacle gradient is 152 ft/nm
Standard Instrument Departure (SID)

Published IFR departure procedure, providing a standard route from the terminal area to the en route system.

  • To accept, the DP must be at least written down, and preferably in chart form.
    • If not in possession, note “NO DP” in the flight plan.
    • ATC might just read the whole thing anyway.
  • Exist in vectored and pilot-navigated versions.
Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR)

Established IFR arrival routes for specific, larger airports, designed to simplify clearance delivery.

  • Some procedures have mandatory speeds or crossing altitudes published, or information on what to expect.
  • Aircraft on a STAR must be cleared to descend; obstacle clearance is the responsibility of ATC.
  • Variations include RNAV and Type B, which use GPS or RNAV technology to attain 2nm and 1nm accuracy respectively.
  • Different instrument approach types exist, with different arrival procedures, as many have multiple initial approach fixes.
Standard departure and terminal arrival charts
  • non-standard take-off minimums (Instrument Flying, 533)
    • NOS – listed in front of the packet
    • Jepp – per-airport
  • SIDs and DPs (536)
    • with the approaches for the airport in NOS and Jepp
    • list requirements
    • illustrate the departure and where it ends (MEAD7.BLD is the Mead Seven departure, BLD transition)
    • transition routes lead to and from the enroute system
    • chart also includes a textual description for each runway
    • symbology is the same as enroute charts
Standard instrument approach procedure charts

NACO and Jeppesen have slightly different formats, but differ only in minor symbology and the depiction of minimums.

  • briefing strip
    • city (how charts are indexed)
    • approach information – nav frequency, course, lengths and altitudes
    • approach name
    • ICAO identifier and airport name
    • requirements, lighting information, missed approach
    • radio frequencies
  • plan view
    • top-down view of the approach
    • ADFDME, or RADAR REQUIRED is printed in the top right corner for some approaches
    • effective date (vertical along the side)
    • minimum safe altitudes (MSA) listed in bottom right corner
    • navaids and frequencies are listed again
  • airport plan
    • shows airport layout
    • FAF to MAP distance and times
  • profile view
    • missed approach instructions, top corner
    • vertical depiction of the approach, from the initial fix on
    • shows glideslope intercept and minimum altitudes for the segment
  • final approach fix depictions:
    • nonprecision:  Maltese cross
    • precision:  glideslope intercept at lightning bolt
  • minimums
    • different minimums for different categories (some overlap)
    • list different approach options – straight-in, circling, etc
Approach briefing

When briefing for an approach, it’s good to quickly read through the pertinentinformation, skipping that which is not relevant for our current approach:

  1. Approach and TDZE (Paine Field ILS to 16R, touchdown elevation 565)
  2. Nav facility and frequency (IPAE, 109.3 – tuned, identified, course twisted, source selected)
  3. Comm frequencies (On approach, 16R tower is 132.95 and in standby)
  4. If major obstacles exist, locate the highest point under the approach and missed (830 MSL tower under the missed approach path)
  5. Minimums (DH is 781 feet / 200 AGLRVR greater than 2,400)
  6. Procedure (We’re northwest and can expect vectors to final at 3,100)
  7. Runway data – landing distance and lighting available (We’re landing 16R, 9000 feet available, lighting is tower controlled, and once we see the rabbit we can descend to 681.)
  8. Missed (If missed, climb to 1,300 followed by a climbing right turn to 3,100 direct to RITTS and hold.) Mentioning fuel available for the hold is also a good idea.
Radar approaches
  • Both types are charted, if available, by Jeppesen and listed in NACO packets
  • Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR), nonprecision
    • range and azimuth (course) information only, no altitude
    • Radar control will give a series of vectors and descents
      • recommended altitude each mile
      • descent to MDA
    • Use a 3° descent path
      • rate of descent approximately equals 5× groundspeed
  • Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
    • slope guidance allows for much greater accuracy
    • Radar control advises MDA, missed approach, and descent points
    • On final, controller provides vectors for the centerline and distance each mile
      • recommended altitudes available on request
    • At glidepath intercept, the controller will instruct “begin descent”, at which point a 3° slope should be maintained
    • At DH, the controller will advise